What is hemoglobin? What is its main function? Hemoglobin deficiency, anemia disease (anemia) or anemia

What is hemoglobin? What is its main function?

Hemoglobin or Hb is an iron-containing protein found in red blood cells (RBCs) of human blood.

Its main function is to transport oxygen in the body, in addition it also transports carbon di oxide and hydrogen ion. When we breathe, the amount of oxygen in our lungs is high, at that time the hemoglobin binds to oxygen in the lungs and spreads throughout the body, and from there, the dioxide reaches the lungs which when exhaled. It gets out of the body.

Due to this, human blood is red in color.
Hemoglobin is also responsible for the normal size of red blood cells (both concave from the surface).

If there is a defect in hemoglobin, then the texture of red blood cells also changes and its function is affected (eg: in sickle cell anemia).

Composition of hemoglobin -

Hemoglobin is made up of two parts [heme (iron or iron) + globin (protein)]. Each hemoglobin molecule is made up of four heme groups, surrounded by globin. A hemoglobin molecule consists of four atoms of heme, which bind to four oxygen atoms and transport them.

What is the normal level of hemoglobin in blood?

Hemoglobin levels can be easily detected in any pathology lab by a blood test.
Hemoglobin levels are measured on the basis of 100 mL of blood. In medical language it is expressed in deciliters (dl), that is, 1 deciliter (dl) means 100 ml of blood. Infants, children, women and men have different common levels -

Infants - 15–20 g / deciliter (gm / dl) in blood,
Children - 11-15 g / deciliter (gm / dl) in blood,
Females - 12.5–15.5 g / deciliter (gm / dl) in blood,
Pregnant women - 11-13 g / deciliter (gm / dl) in blood,

Men - 13.5 - 17.5 g / deciliter (gm / dl) in blood,

Hemoglobin deficiency -

Hemoglobin deficiency is called anemia (anemia) or anemia. The main reasons for this are the following -

Excessive bleeding (eg accident, injury, operation time, prolonged stomach ulcers)
Malnutrition (lack of proper diet such as iron, vitamin B12, folic acid deficiency),
Due to pregnancy,
Diseases of bone marrow,
Loss of blood due to side effects of drugs
Kidney disease,

Hemoglobin-forming disease (sickle cell anemia, thalassemia)

Increasing hemoglobin levels by medicine and drugs:

Sometimes when there is a deficiency of hemoglobin in emergency situations, its level is increased by:
Blood of a person,
Erythropoietin: It is a hormone that increases the formation of red blood carcinoca.

Taking iron element by drugs. Ferrous sulfate is given to patients with anemia.

Sources of hemoglobin (proper food):

Fruit: It is beneficial to eat pomegranate, apple, dry fruits and watermelon when the hemoglobin level is low. Apricots, dates and raisins are a good source of iron. Oranges, limes and litchi provide vitamin C which is responsible for the absorption of iron.

Vegetables: Beetroot, spinach, peas, tomatoes are good sources of iron.

Meat: Meat is a good source of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Cereals: Wheat, barley also contain iron.

Legumes: Rajma, gram and soybeans are rich in iron.

Other sources: Peanuts, poultry, yogurt are also sources of iron.

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